The International Paris Air Show, inaugurated in 1909, is the world’s oldest (and largest) aviation show, drawing participants from all over the world. Open to both professionals and the general public, it is the leading global networking event in the aerospace industry and a prime location for the development and display of leading edge aviation and space innovations. The show is organized by Salon International de l'Aeronautique et de l'Espace (SIAE), a subsidiary of Groupement des Industries Françaises Aéronautiques et Spatiales (GIFAS). This year’s event will take place June 17-23, 2013 at Le Bourget Exhibition Center.
(Promotional poster for the 50th International Paris Air Show.)
ASU LightWorks Deputy Director, Dr. Ellen Stechel, will have a booth at the Paris Air Show to discuss LightSpeed Solutions, a collaborative initiative that advocates the awareness and advancement of solar-to-fuel technologies and recycled CO2 waste. The LightSpeed mission statement is as follows:
“LightSpeed Solutions communicates exciting innovations for technologies on the roadmap to marketable and sustainable solar fuels. We are passionate about recycling waste CO2 as a feedstock to create liquid hydrocarbons using sunlight and brackish water. We aim to produce low carbon, scalable and infrastructure compatible transportation fuels initially hybridizing with natural gas and biomass. We can capitalize on cheap and abundant natural gas in the near term and avoid locking in a high-carbon future in the long term. Together we can overcome our urgent energy and climate challenges with sunlight to fuel solutions.”
At the Paris Air Show, Dr. Stechel will place particular emphasis on using solar-to-fuel options to create jet fuel that is both commercially scalable and sustainable. The following infographic demonstrates the solar fuels “roadmap” concept.
Dr. Stechel recently published a “Thought Leader Series” piece with the Global Institute of Sustainability (GIOS) titled, “Low Carbon Fuels From Sunlight: Is it possible? Is it practical?” Click here for more information on this piece, which discusses the technical aspects of solar-to-fuel technologies and LightSpeed’s position in communicating them.
The world sits at the crossroad of a great energy shift. Transportation fuels are just one small piece of the carbon emissions problem. Atmospheric CO2 levels just reached 400 ppm for the first time in the history of humankind. The Scripps Research CO2 Group offers this perspective:
“An immediate cut in fossil-fuel emissions by 55 percent is clearly not even remotely possible, so CO2 will continue its relentless rise. Keeping CO2 below 450 ppm will also be very difficult, as this will require immediately leveling off of fossil fuel emissions and then cutting emissions to below 30 percent of present levels over the next 50 years or so. If nothing is done to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, CO2 could keep rising for centuries, depending on the amount of coal, natural gas, oil, and any new forms of fossil fuels that are extractable. By some estimates, the ultimate resource of fossil fuels may be large enough that CO2 will rise as high as 1,600 ppm before fossil fuels are fully depleted. This would be sufficient to cause the world to warm between 4 to 10° C (7 to 18° F) with unimaginable consequences.”
LightSpeed seeks to advance technologies that tackle the carbon problem by storing sunlight and sequestering carbon above ground in the form of solar fuels, offering a transition vehicle to a cleaner, more sustainable energy future.
You will find LightSpeed Solutions in the Alternative Aviation Fuels Pavilion in Hall 1 at kiosk 1-H276-1. View brochure here for more details.
You may follow the Paris Air Show on Twitter using hashtag #PAS13.
Written by Sydney Lines, ASU LightWorks
Connect with Dr. Stechel on Twitter:
On April 9, 2013, Dr. Mahesh Morjaria, Vice President of Global Grid Integration at First Solar, visited Arizona State University to speak about the development and integration of utility scale PV technology and its transition as a mainstream power source. The topic was separated into a morning and evening lecture. The morning lecture focused on addressing the need to develop both scale and reliability of utility PV plants to make solar energy more affordable and sustainable for the future. The second lecture focused on explaining the transition of solar power from serving what has previously been a subsidy driven market to a more sustainable one that poses as competition with the fossil fuel market.
LightWorks Lecture Series: Dr. Morjaria. Photo taken by Sydney Lines, ASU LightWorks.
Morning Lecture: The Development of Utility Scale PV Plants
In his first lecture, Dr. Morjaria explained what it takes to develop and operate a large utility scale PV plant. Utility scale PV plants have become cost-effective, therefore the incorporation of grid-friendly PV plants is now a large part of First Solar’s overall development plan. According to Dr. Morjaria, a successful path to grid flexibility is by following the steps of the solar value chain.
- Policy and Sustainability
By starting with policy and sustainability standards, the ideal grid system can be visualized. “In general people like solar because it’s clean and doesn’t create environmental issues,” said Dr. Morjaria. “But the modules themselves need to be sustainable as well”. Policy and sustainability standards help drive efficiency advances of PV technology. “As we continue to improve efficiency we have the potential to make solar more affordable and more sustainable as well,” Dr. Morjaria said. First Solar is currently focusing on developing thin film PV technology. The thin film PV modules produce a higher sustainable energy yield and degrade far less than then the conventional solar energy modules.
- Development and Financing
Dr. Morjaria explained that solar energy, in general, is low density energy. This means that we need a lot of land to capture that energy. First Solar must practically consider where utility scale PV plants can be developed. Dr. Morjaria explained that if you are living in Manhattan there is no room for solar power plants, but there is plenty of land in Arizona and California. In general, the amount of energy that we need in the United States can be captured in the amount of land used in these areas. The challenge is keeping environmental mitigation in mind. Dr. Morjaria said that community outreach for a power-purchase agreement and research of natural habitat will help the development and financing areas of future utility scale PV plants.
- Grid Integration and Plant Yield
The stability and reliability of power grids and plant yield is an important aspect to the utility scale PV power plant. Dr. Morjaria said that the ability to predict the performance of the plant will keep the electricity grid stabilized. He gave the example of load balancing, which is the ability to forecast the amount of energy that can be produced in a day before it happens. For example, let’s say tomorrow is going to be a hot day. The use of air-conditioning is going to go up in buildings to cope with the heat. Through load balancing, utility scale PV plants can control the demand of energy produced for that day.
- Engineering and Construction
Engineering cost-effective, well-designed, and grid-friendly PV enhances reliability at the power plant. Dr. Morjaria gave the example of constructing modules to be consistently following the sun through the process of module mounting configuration. These modules are able to capture the most amount of sunlight in a given day in order to save power and generate electricity during the evening. He also explained that PV plants have the capability to build 1MW of energy a day. Through construction being able to take off this quickly, the production of the utility scale PV power plant can go into operation right away. “There is not any other technology that can generate the speed of that power,” Dr. Morjaria said.
- Operations and Maintenance
Dr. Morjaria explained that a utility scale PV power plant is much easier to maintain than a conventional power plant. “You go to a PV plant and there’s very little sound and you wonder if it’s actually working,” said Dr. Morjaria. “It’s a lot different from a fuel power plant.” Through new technologies, utility scale PV power plants are able to operate and maintain daily operations in brand new ways. Dr. Morjaria gave the example of the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) which collects data from the whole plant for remote access. Through SCADA, First Solar can look at their utility scale PV power plants all over the globe to make sure everything is running smoothly.
Evening Lecture: Solar Power’s Transition into a Mainstream Generation Resource
Dr. Morjaria began his talk with three key messages:
- Photovoltaic (PV) solar electricity has become competitive in many markets, shifting from policy-driven growth to basic generation economics.
- Favorable value proposition: clean energy with hedge on fuel price volatility
- Solar energy already <50% of diesel generation cost
- With 100 GW installed to date, PV contributes <1% of total world electricity generation. But solar energy has potential to reach over 25% global electricity by 2050.
- Challenges include achieving scale in existing energy mix, grid integration and a few others
Dr. Morjaria noted that solar resources are abundant, accounting for a renewable 23,000 terra-watt yield per year as opposed to coal (900 per year), oil (240 per year), and others that yield even less and are non-renewable sources pulled from reserves. To date, 100GW of PV have been installed globally, converting solar irradiance into usable electricity. “Solar is approaching a tipping point,” Morjaria said, with a continually growing competitiveness worldwide.
Morjaria outlined the way First Solar is leading in PV manufacturing by providing outstanding leadership across the solar value chain and holding many “first” records in global module recycling, breaking the $1/watt cost barrier, producing 1GW in a single year, and others. First Solar also has the fastest energy payback time of all current PV technologies, requiring less than one year of operation to recover the energy required to fabricate the system. In addition to this, First Solar’s PV CdTe technology has the smallest carbon footprint and requires the least amount of water use of all current solar technologies.
On a global scale, solar PV has the potential to drive serious change in power and electricity use because it is scalable, clean, and sustainable, and it complements the current power portfolio by acting as “a hedge against fuel price volatility.” Morjaria identifies the main global PV demand drivers as:
- CO2 Reductions
- Energy Security
- Fossil Fuel Savings
- Energy Diversity & Fuel Price Volatility
- Off Grid Energy Access
- Hybrid Solutions/Unique Applications
- Time-of-Day Matching
While solar power has vast potential as an energy source, there are key challenges to keep in mind. Grid flexibility is crucial to meeting operational challenges. There is a need for resources that can rapidly adjust to address variability and more concentrated solar power with thermal storage. A solar future is secure, Morjaria argues, but integration into a global energy mix will take time because of issues with infrastructure, public policy/land use, energy storage, balancing grid flexibility, distributed PV, and overall long-term planning.
Morjaria concluded by reiterating that PV solar electricity has already become competitive in many markets, shifting growth from policy to basic generation economics. He restated that 100GW are already installed globally with a projected 400-600GW of worldwide installations by 2020. The primary challenges exist in achieving scale in the energy mix and grid integration.
Morjaria ended his talk with a quote by famous business thinker, Peter Drucker, who said “The best way to predict the future is to create it.”
The transition from conventional power plants to utility scale PV power plants is not an easy task. By providing both a plan of action and bringing the conversation to the public, we can see that First Solar is advancing research and development to benefit the future of utility scale PV power plants. These two lectures were sponsored by ASU LightWorks. Visit the ASU LightWorks event page to follow up on our upcoming lecture series.
ASU LightWorks Flickr Photo Stream of Dr. Morjaria Lecture.
Written by Gabrielle Olson and Sydney Lines, ASU LightWorks
A Thought Leader Series Piece
Note: Ellen B. Stechel is the Deputy Director of ASU’s LightWorks and Managing Director of LightSpeed Solutions, communicating global efforts of leading scientists and researchers working towards sustainable transportation energy based on liquid hydrocarbon fuels from the sun.
A network of issues buried beneath the strategic and economic importance of petroleum and the increasing concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide is complex; however, until addressed, no measure of global sustainability will be obtainable.
If we accept that, any solution to such issues yield lower net carbon emissions by 50-80 percent, then despite obvious advantages, alternative fossil fuel pathways cannot be the ultimate solution for transportation.
The economics of carbon
A stable policy environment to level the playing field and allow time for low-carbon options to develop, deploy, and decrease costs through experience, learning, scale, and innovation is necessary, but insufficient.
Higher carbon fuels from Canadian tar sands; coal or gas-to-liquids projects; and natural gas switching (with modest carbon reductions) rapidly entering the transportation sector may block market penetration of low-carbon innovations, discouraging investment in emerging technologies. Long-lived assets could “lock-in” a high-carbon transportation infrastructure and all but eliminate viable options for transitioning to a low-carbon future.
Innovation policy that enables a balanced portfolio of promising options would stimulate development of viable possibilities by focusing on solving the problem as opposed to choosing a limited set of specified approaches, thereby excluding opportunities for novel solutions, including hybrids, integrated systems, and new concepts.
Is liquid hydrocarbon fuel still a good option?
New low-carbon domestic energy sources and transportation innovation, such as increased fuel economy, biofuels, electrification, and possibly hydrogen, would reduce total demand for petroleum and carbon emissions, but not enough.
Could liquid hydrocarbon-based fuel remain a viable and sustainable option in large quantities? Often overlooked, liquid hydrocarbon fuels are unrivaled in the rate of delivery to on-board, usable energy storage. They are also unsurpassed in having high energy densities accommodating both space and weight requirements. Consequently, there are no credible alternatives for air, heavy-duty, or commercial ocean applications save some penetration of compressed or liquefied natural gas.
Furthermore, it is neither useful nor accurate to think of petroleum as a primary energy resource. It is more appropriate and instructive to recognize that conventional fossil fuels are in fact, “stored (ancient) sunlight” in the form of energy dense, sequestered carbon and hydrogen that nature took millions of years to produce and modern civilization is taking only centuries to consume. Carbon dioxide and water are simply the energy-depleted, oxidized form of the carbon and hydrogen making up the hydrocarbon. Thus, we might consider reframing the problem as a techno-economic challenge to reverse combustion fast enough to match consumption.
Recycling carbon dioxide
This reframing suggests searching for large-scale options that convert, store, and upgrade sunlight to a higher energy value and transportable form as nature did, but faster. An underexplored emerging strategy is to develop solar technologies that recycle—rather than bury—waste carbon dioxide into new supplies of liquid hydrocarbon fuels.
For example, synthetic solar thermochemical fuel processes can convert solar energy, excess carbon dioxide, and low quality water into gasoline, diesel, and aviation fuel—fuels that are compatible with the existing energy infrastructure. This process recycles carbon dioxide back into fuel at rates considerably faster and more efficiently than the biosphere naturally captures and fixes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
To achieve societal objectives, such options will need to do so efficiently, affordably, and sustainably. Many challenges are avoided by utilizing existing infrastructure whenever possible and using waste carbon dioxide as a carbon source feedstock initially from concentrated sources, but ultimately directly or indirectly captured from the excess in the atmosphere.
Opportunities and challenges
Large-scale industrial conversion of solar energy that transforms carbon dioxide and water into infrastructure compatible hydrocarbon fuels is an attractive option to facilitate a smooth and continuous transition, affecting the existing vehicle fleet and co-evolving with the future fleet. However, such an option while certainly possible, still has significant resource, economic, and technical challenges before becoming practical, especially if it is going to achieve scale and be sustainable.
A general examination identifies a number of challenges, such as achieving high solar energy-to-fuel system-level efficiency, low material intensity in the solar collectors, high material accessibility, and good material durability; limited and no additional arable land use; and low water consumption. Opportunities to meet each of these challenges are already encouraging.
Using the sunlight to re-energize carbon dioxide both directly and in hybrids (with biomass or fossil feedstocks) can produce net lower and ultimately net neutral carbon-based fuels with most of the carbon in the initial feedstock making it into the fuel product. Researchers in several countries, including the U.S., working on solar-based recycling of carbon dioxide have prototypes and some making it to large-scale demonstrations.
Such innovations could unite solar energy interests with fossil fuel and biofuel interests, and could preserve an option for a low-carbon future and a smooth transition that maximizes the use of installed infrastructure and new investments in natural gas.
A promising energy future
These opportunities offer significant promise for a platform of technologies that store sunlight and sequester carbon above ground as an energy-dense fuel with affordable economics, closing the-carbon cycle, and scalable to global demand.
Despite challenges, there are promising advances already happening and opportunities to leverage developments in related industry segments. By working across stovepipes, we can drive sustainable economic growth, create many high-quality jobs, and produce viable and scalable solar alternatives to petroleum.
About the author: Ellen B. Stechel is trained in mathematics, chemistry, and physics. Early in her career, she was a technical staff member at Sandia National Laboratories before moving to the Scientific Research Lab and later Product Development at Ford Motor Company. While at Ford, her responsibilities included emissions and fuel chemistries, climate change and sustainability, and deployment of new technologies for low emission vehicles. Later in her career, she returned to Sandia National Labs to build and manage research efforts in applied energy, making fuels from the sun and concentrating solar technologies. She is now a professor of practice at ASU’s Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry.
Originally published here in the Global Institute of Sustainability's "Thought Leader Series" on April 30, 2013.
How do humans work with growing population? Sir Crispin Tickell, advisory council member of the Oxford Martin School at the University of Oxford, explores this question in his lecture “The Human Future” which took place on April 11, 2013. This lecture, sponsored as part of the GIOS Wrigley Lecture Series, confronted the issues of adaptation to climate change, the economics of health and wealth, and most importantly, the way we think about sustainability in regards to the future of energy.
Sir Crispin Tickell and LightWorks’ director Gary Dirks. Photo by Gabrielle Olson, LightWorks.
Sir Crispin explained that over time humans have grown ignorant to the consequences affecting our atmosphere, human health, food and energy sources, and overall environment as a result of human behavior. As population increases, it is inevitable that human activity will continue to have more of an impact on our future. Sir Crispin pointed out that the relationship between the rate of production and consumption correlates with the rate of climate change, shortage of food, new diseases, and unsustainable products. “Consumption may not continue,” said Sir Crispin. “We need to reach accommodations and hopefully restore some balance.”
To be sustainable is to expect the unexpected. Simply encouraging people to use less will not work as efficiently as encouraging them to think differently and plan for the future. One major problem of getting this information across is the lack of communication between media and scientists. Sir Crispin explains the importance of people staying responsibly informed and engaged with planning for the future of our world. Sir Crispin believes that by 2113, humans will practice ethical situations that allow the natural world to have its place.
Sir Crispin Tickell’s perception of the human future includes:
- Increased Communication and New Technologies—information will pass over the entire planet and transform the human relationship. Clean technologies will allow an easier way to adapt into a sustainable future.
- Focused Communities—the current obsession with growth and overuse will be directed into specialized local fields. Production of local crops, redesigned cities, and access to greater public transportation will keep communities closer together.
- Implementation of Clean Energy—clean energy will be decentralized and focused on benefitting the environment and human health.
Sir Crispin’s lecture can be connected to the way that we plan for our future energy sources. The quality of life for individuals and societies is affected by energy choices. Rethinking the way that we want to run our societies is the first step. By staying active in supporting local and state renewable energy policy and research development, the future of clean energy will be made more certain. Sir Crispin ended his lecture by asking the question, “How long will it take to renew our human impact?” The answer relies on us all.
Watch the full lecture recorded by The Global Institute of Sustainability at ASU.
Wrigley Lecture Series - Sir Crispin Tickell from Sustainability @ ASU on Vimeo.
Written by Gabrielle Olson, ASU LightWorks.
Pop quiz question—how much of the earth’s surface is covered in water? The answer is 70%. Although that is a big number, less than 1 percent of that water is actually suitable for human use and consumption. The majority of the water on Earth is full of salt or permanently frozen in glaciers. With large scale usage of clean water for farming, drinking, and washing, the concern of water scarcity and drought comes to mind. Researchers have turned to developing water desalination as a route to protect clean water for the future. If we are able to successfully tackle water-related challenges by desalination, then we could ultimately face the looming effects of climate change and clean water demands for the future.
On March 18, 2013 the ASU Energy Club hosted an event focused specifically on the development and energy impact of water desalination plants as part of their Water-Energy Nexus Workshop series.
The guest speaker for this event was Dr. Jesus Gastelum from the Yuma Desalting Plant (YDP), a water treatment facility. Gastelum first gave the ASU Energy Club an overview of the Colorado River Basin. The Colorado River Basin provides water to Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada, California, and Mexico. Water from the Colorado River Basin is delivered to Arizona via the Central Arizona Project (CAP) canal which provides Arizona municipal, agricultural, and Indian communities with water. It is a 336-mile long system starting from Lake Havasu City all the way to San Xavier Indian Reservation in Tucson. The system is comprised of aqueducts, tunnels, pumping plants and pipelines that provide a steady source of water to the people of Arizona. The Navajo Generating Station (NGS) provides the electrical power needed to pump water into the CAP aqueduct. The relationship between NGS and CAP is an example of a water-energy nexus because together they determine how much energy it takes to keep a consistent flow of water in the canal.
Water will always remain in high demand for Arizona due to our desert acclimated environment. It certainly does not help that both climate change and population demand has contributed to the greater possibility for drought for the southwestern portion of the United States. The 2007 and 2010 summer drought serves as examples of times when water shortages have hit Arizona hard. The CAP states that the Colorado River will never completely dry up, but they do note the capability for drought. Although they have guidelines for drought preparations and “enough water stored behind dams to provide the needs for upper and lower basin states for three to five years”, projects like the YDP and other water desalination plants have been initiated to further prevention. The YDP was built in 1992 as a project to help the U.S. ration the water from the Colorado River by demonstrating desalination as the potential answer for the growing thirst of southwestern states.
YDP focuses on cleaning up inland brackish water, both surface and groundwater, and includes analyzing water samples from the Colorado River. YDP uses the process of pretreatment and reverse osmosis (RO) to clean water and make it suitable for human use. YDP is looking into treatment alternatives that could potentially limit the amount of chemicals used in water treatment. Gastelum said that YDP’s purpose is to “Ensure tomorrow’s water supply by pioneering new technologies”.
It takes an extreme amount of energy to run water plants. For example, YDP uses over 33,000 megawatts and CAP uses 2.8 million megawatts of power to operate their plant. ASU Energy Club members were interested in discussing the possibility of solar to operate water plants in the future. They gave the example of the city of Gila Bend which powers their RO water system with a 460 kilowatt photovoltaic solar-energy system. Although a great use of energy efficiency for Gila Bend, using solar to entirely power YDP and CAP could prove to be fairly difficult. What is difficult now, however, may not be in the near future. With further research and development in solar power, water desalination plants like YDP could be a source of sustainable and energy efficient water for our future.
Researchers at ASU are working hard to confront challenges with water in our desert environment by studying the effects of climate change, available access to water, the possibilities of wastewater, and more. Check out ASU’s water research homepage here.
Written by Gabrielle Olson, ASU LightWorks
On February 22, 2013, ASU faculty and students attended an all-day workshop focusing on the larger social, economic, policy, and ethical considerations of solar energy. This event was sponsored by ASU's Consortium for Science, Policy, and Outcomes (CSPO), the National Science Foundation, and the National Academy of Engineering. The speakers and facilitators hosting this event included Clark Miller, the Associate Director of CSPO; Joseph Herkert, an Associate Professor of Ethics and Technology in the School of Letters and Sciences; and Chad Monfreda, a graduate research associate at CSPO.
The workshop hosted a morning and afternoon session with following group activities, networking, and plenty of room for open discussions. The two sessions provided the basis of the workshop’s key concepts and ideas which was to explain the importance of social and ethical considerations of solar in Arizona and across the United States.
Photo retrieved from ASU Consortium for Science, Policy, and Outcomes website: www.cspo.org.
Session I: Solar Energy and Socio-technical systems
Clark Miller was the speaker for the morning lecture which aimed at explaining the social implications of developing solar energy. Miller first began with explaining what a socio-technical system is. A socio-technical system is a system in which people and technological elements are woven together. Miller provided the example of the automobile, which allows people to travel easily from work to home. For many people, automobiles are relied upon as a daily function. Another example is air conditioning, which allows us to endure the often intolerable Arizona summer heat. Technology heavily influences and shapes the way we live our lives.
The energy that we use to produce technology is not only influential to our everyday human functions, but to our future as well. In regards to energy consumption, the socio-technical system relies on connecting the way we use energy to the human powers of existence. The way we see technology, people, and energy woven together is called a socio-energy system. Although there are more people on earth than ever before, Miller noted that the energy transition is “not a population transition, but rather a technological transition because there is an increasing density of electricity consumption”. It is becoming apparent that solar energy technology, such as photovoltaics, will be integrated into our socio-energy system to satisfy our future energy needs in a clean and sustainable way. Miller argues that it is therefore essential that we know how to organize, make money, and govern our socio-energy system so that we receive the best benefits.
It is not easy to determine how to organize, govern, and financially gain from implementing a new low-carbon energy system. The oil and gas companies are deeply embedded into our economies. Transitioning out of this system will entail big winners and big losers if poorly planned. Miller gave the example of people living on the Gulf Coast. The Gulf Coast does not naturally achieve the same amount of sun as we have in the Southwest. “We cannot forget about these people” said Miller. “We need to figure out how we are going to economically develop the Gulf Coast which will not get much solar development”. Miller also explained that although solar energy reaps great benefits for residential home owners, it would have a reverse effect on energy utility companies such as Arizona Public Service Company (APS) or Salt River Project (SRP). “Energy change will redistribute risks and benefits,” said Miller. “It will cost people jobs”. Miller explains that if we are going to transition out of the current socio-energy system then we need to develop new ways to do business and try to reap the best benefits for everyone. Miller notes that ASU is setting an example by training students to become aware of energy policy issues that will be useful later on when solar becomes more evident in a national energy plan.
Session II: Solar Energy and Ethical Considerations
Joseph Herkert was the speaker for the second session which aimed at explaining ethics and how we can correlate it to solar energy development. Herkert explained that ethical issues involve conflict of interests or values of different individuals or organizations. In regards to ethical considerations of energy, Herkert provided the example of global warming. Global warming is a concern of many scientists but still remains an issue of conflicted public interest. Herkert explains that it comes down to “what we know and what we ought to do”. We know that installing nuclear power plants can have disastrous effects on both an environmental scale and a human health related scale. Although nuclear disasters like Fukushima and Chernobyl can potentially happen again, it is a risk that many countries take to sustain an energy economy.
Herkert provided two philosophical viewpoints in regards to ethical considerations. The first is Utilitarianism Ethics, which states the greatest good for the greatest number. People who develop ethics on the Utilitarianism guidelines would focus on the consequence and see which options benefit the most people. Utilitarian Ethics in energy policy would create an energy policy that would benefit the greatest amount of people and their environment.” To counter that point, Herkert gave the example of Duty-Based Ethics which is based on duties or obligations regardless of the consequences. Herkert explains that Duty-Based Ethics is based on not treating people as merely a means to an end. In regards to energy ethics, this can be viewed as everyone having the right to energy services, not just a select few. These two points can often conflict with the other: How can we balance the best potential outcome (Utilitarianism) with the right of everyone having the same energy services (Duty-Based)?
Herkert explains that if we envision a sustainable world, “energy efficiency on its own is not going to do it, we need behavior changes”. With a code of energy ethics, we are able to have guidelines on how we want to see a renewable energy future. Herkert said that there has yet to be a solid code of ethics for solar energy, and if we were to develop a code of ethics, what would it look like? Herkert provided a sample code of ethics which is listed here:
Herkert’s Sample Code of Solar Ethics:
- Solar energy development should not be at the expense of people’s essential rights
- Solar energy should be environmentally sustainable
- Solar energy should not contribute to net reduction of total greenhouse gas emissions and not exacerbate global climate change
- Solar energy should develop in accordance with trade principles that are fair and recognize the rights of people to a just reward
- Costs and benefits of solar energy should be distributed in an equitable way
- If the first five principles are respected, there is a duty to develop solar energy
This workshop initiated thought processes and conversation starters which encouraged students and faculty to look at the large-scale considerations of solar energy. By examining these two lectures, it is apparent that having conversations about the social and ethical implications of solar energy is important for people not only interested in getting into renewable energy development and policy, but for the greater masses affected by the institution of these policies. With having more workshops like this at Arizona State University, we can further develop how we wish to see the future of solar in Arizona and across the United States.
Written by Gabrielle Olson, ASU LightWorks
ASU Energy Social Sciences Initiative:
Connect with CSPO on Twitter:
On January 24, 2013, ASU students, faculty, researchers, and members from across the Phoenix metropolitan area attended a public event titled “The Future of Energy: Brown, Clean, or In Between?”. The event included booth displays by the Arizona Energy Consortium and the university community, a compelling panel discussion, and a dinner reception. The event was hosted by the partnership of Arizona State University and the Arizona Science Center.
From left to right: ASU President Michael Crow, Moderator Eve Troeh, Mark Jacobson, Peter Byck, and John Hofmeister. Photo taken by Gabrielle Olson, ASU LightWorks.
After welcoming remarks from Chevy Humphrey, President and CEO of the Arizona Science Center, ASU President Michael Crow introduced the panel discussion by providing important insight about the future of energy:
“If you plan to be here for the indefinite future, we must find a way to produce a different kind of person, a different set of ideas, and a different set of ‘stuff’ to think about our energy future in a different way.”
In order to produce the successful solutions we wish to see, we must toss political positions aside and come together to generate ideas that will benefit future generations. Deciding the route for our future energy policy is not easy--Should we go full scale renewable energy? Stick to fossil fuels? Invest in a mixture of both? Regardless of how one wishes to answer those questions, it is time for the critical discussions to be made. This was the goal and purpose of the Future of Energy panel discussion, hosting the opinions of three very different panelists.
Director, Atmosphere/Energy Program, Stanford University
Mark Jacobson believes that the first step for our transition is to start today. The energy future he envisions is a full conversion to clean energy by the year 2050. He breaks down the divisions noting the transition should ultimately be 50% wind and 50% solar. When asked if natural gas, an in-between option, would be an acceptable energy plan, Jacobson said, “Natural gas still puts out CO2. Why would we start there?” In terms of the future of energy, Mark Jacobson believes in an energy system that will reduce our carbon footprint.
Director and Producer, Carbon Nation
Peter Byck believes that the future of energy will need to initiate a coming together of communities. Byck said, “I want to go to a low carbon community as quickly as possible”. Byck noted that corporations and communities have a more similar role in succeeding in that goal than most people might think. Byck’s view is that we are not polarized as a country in terms of the energy issue and that if we are able to see past that then we are able to really get some great things done in implementing clean energy.
Founder, Citizens for Affordable Energy. Former President, Shell Oil Co.
John Hofmeister looks at energy as an operator. Unlike Peter Byck and Mark Jacobson, Hofmeister sees the shortcomings of renewable energy. He noted that there are two shortcomings, “a fundamental lack of information and a lack of someone in charge”. Hofmeister believes that transitioning into full use of renewable energy would be more difficult to pull off right away without regulation or natural gas. Hofmeister said, “We need time and time is the solution for many of these problems”. Although Hofmeister believes there are shortcomings to renewable energy, he does believe that we should be talking about it.
Here is the full video coverage brought to you by ASU Global Institute of Sustainability:
Future of Energy: Brown, Clean, or In Between? from Sustainability @ ASU on Vimeo.
Although all the panelists had different views about how to define our future of energy, the general consensus was that Arizona, as well as the rest of the nation, must make a conscious effort to incorporate renewable energy initiatives into the discussion. Whether it is for energy security, a cleaner and more sustainable world, or for coming together as a community, the research and development of renewable energy technology will need to be seen as an option for our future of energy.
Written by Gabrielle Olson, ASU LightWorks
The Advanced Research Projects Agency – Energy (ARPA-E) is hosting its fourth annual Energy Innovation Summit in Washington D.C. on February 25-27, 2013. The event is designed to collect esteemed individuals involved in the energy community- researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials- to engage in sharing ideas to develop and deploy next generation energy technologies. The summit is a unique opportunity to discuss innovative energy solutions that will fit the world’s future needs.
“This unique forum will help facilitate the partnerships necessary to bring game-changing technologies to market quickly, which is critical to securing America’s global technology leadership and creating new jobs.” – Steven Chu, Secretary of Energy.
The summit is separated into three days which will consist of technology discussions with ARPA-E program directors, multiple panel sessions, and networking programs. Check out the full agenda here. Each year, the summit also hosts the Technology Showcase which features cutting-edge technology developments. The showcase enables participants to converge with research organizations and companies that are positioned to transform our energy future.
Arizona State University is one of the proud research organizations participating in the Technology Showcase at the 2013 ARPA-E Innovation summit. This year ASU will be showcasing LightWorks, which will be representing all supported initiatives, as well as projects specifically focusing on cyanobacteria, carbon capture, and Fluidic Energy, an ASU spin-out company working in battery storage. Preparation for this event was supported by ASU's Office of Knowledge Enterprise Development.
Booths in the Technology Showcase:
Carbon capture is an energy efficient and cost effective process that captures carbon dioxide from prominent emission sources, such as a coal-burning power plant. ASU is advancing the method of carbon dioxide capture by using electrochemical reactions used to capture and release carbon dioxide. This process has the possibility of reducing energy and cost requirements significantly as well as enabling a solution to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. This research was recently awarded a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy.
Through revolutionary technology, cyanobacteria are used as photosynthetic biocatalysts to convert solar energy and carbon dioxide into feedstock for biofuels. This process enables cyanobacteria to secrete fatty acids which produce a larger biomass. The biofuel produced then can be used as jet fuel, gasoline, green diesel fuel, and even bioplastics. Four years ago, ASU was awarded a $5.2 million dollar grant from the DOE to develop this research for two years
Booths in the Partner Pavilion:
Fluidic Energy, an Arizona State University spin-out company, will be showcasing their innovative technology focusing on battery storage. The company aims to develop high energy density batteries with ultra-long run times at a lower energy cost. Fluidic Energy targets on advancing the most effective, safe, and sustainable battery technology.
High-energy batteries address the issue of battery energy and energy storage needed for low-cost and long-range power for hybrid and electric vehicles. This research aims to develop an electric vehicle battery which would allow a distance range better or comparable to a gas-powered vehicle. Through the development of energy storage technologies, the hope is to reduce the need for imported oil to power our vehicles. Battery storage technology won a $5.1 million grant from the DOE to continue development of this research over a two year period in 2009.
The LightWorks initiative of Arizona State University will be showcasing a variety of energy-related technologies focusing in the area of renewable energy and liquid transportation fuels. LightWorks’ multidisciplinary effort aims to leverage ASU’s unique strengths, particularly in development of artificial photosynthesis, biofuels, and next generation photovoltaic. Recently, ASU won a $15 million grant from the DOE to lead the first-ever national algae testbed. The testbed, Algae Testbed Public-Private Partnership (ATP3), is led by LightWorks’ director Gary Dirks.
AZ = Algae (AzCATI) from ASU Research on Vimeo.
Through our leading-edge research, Arizona State University has many things to discuss at the Technology Showcase at the ARPA-E Innovation summit this year. The summit is a great opportunity for ASU to connect and engage in developing next generation energy technologies with researchers from all around the United States. If you would like to learn more about the summit visit http://www.arpae-summit.com/ for more details.
Written by Gabrielle Olson, ASU LightWorks
Throughout the month of November, a number of ASU groups joined forces to talk about narrative and its place in the energy discussion. Among these groups were ASU LightWorks, Project Humanities, Institute for Humanities Research (IHR) and Energy, Ethics, Society, and Policy (EESP). LightWorks Director, Gary Dirks, has long expressed a need for the development of an energy narrative, but part of that comes with first understanding what a narrative is, how it operates, and what it looks like.
EESP group discusses energy and narrative. Photo by: Sydney Lines, ASU LightWorks.
Discussions began with an exploration of narrative purpose. Narratives are complex webs of multiplicities that are based on filters of one’s own perspective, cultural-historical situation, gender, education, and general experience in and with the world. But narratives also connect us as human beings because many stories are culturally cross-cutting, at times even transcending limitations of space and time. This is, for instance, why Shakespeare continues to be read, studied, performed, and adapted. It should also be noted that what makes an effective narrative has little to do with validity of the content, because the truth is present in the experience. A great example of this can be seen by examining propaganda.
Photo credit: Wikipedia
The anti-Japanese WWII propaganda poster above reveals a national narrative about patriotic duty and uses racial stereotypes (both physically and linguistically) to reinforce culturally perceived oppositions of the time, but this doesn’t make it true. What matters here is that regardless of fact, it prompts people to care in some way, whether positively or negatively, about what’s being said. (It is also interesting to note the company logo in the lower right hand side of the poster, which speaks volumes to the way energy is and has been intertwined with politics, society, and culture.)
Gary Dirks gave Greenpeace’s “I Vote 4 Energy” parody video as an example in the energy space because it “deconstructs the underlying narrative of the [original] advertising campaign.”
I Vote 4 Energy Video
The parody only works when we understand the underlying narrative put forth by the American Petroleum Institute. Part of what these collaborative talks are aiming to do is get people to understand narrative so that we can begin to construct our own. Even here when I use the terms “we” and “our” I construct narrative because the language intimates a group for which this narrative should matter.
Neal Lester, Director of Project Humanities, said “The way a story is organized is a narrative in its own.” Ultimately, people can look at the same set of facts or data and draw different conclusions, thereby producing different narratives from the same source material. “Narratives can offer possibilities,” Lester said. “But not necessarily change the world.” People have to care about a particular narrative in order to make it meaningful.
Dan Gilfillan, Director of IHR, suggested that good narratives are ones that are believable. He looked at Aristotle’s philosophies on mimesis and stated, “We can think of the World Wide Web as sort of blowing open the box on notions of representation, but it’s still the same thing as the way early television or early radio worked. When we call the web ‘new media’ it’s really not all that new.” Gilfillan argued that placing ourselves in these mimetic representations helps us to orient ourselves and our experiences in the world. We order the world through our stories and experiences; they just take different shapes with new technologies.
Ultimately, as many speakers noted, narratives are heavily intertwined with language, culture, community, and identity, which all come with their own set of nuances.
Clark Miller, Director of the EESP program, said that we have created an unsustainable way of living and that we need a narrative that speaks to this. Miller notes that we need to find ways to say things like, “You can’t drive a hummer anymore,” the underlying point being that it is socially irresponsible. We have to find ways to build new narratives in order to make fundamental changes.
A common confusion that presented itself at the talks was the notion that narrative is somehow synonymous with facts and/or truths. Content can be true or false, but narrative is simply the tool used in content delivery. Narrative is a piece of literary architecture—the same way a book is simply the material holding cell for a variety of content. Stories are constructed. Whether or not they are true is what readers, listeners, and viewers must be able to determine for themselves from experiencing the narrative.
One participant argued that “Clean Coal” is an oxymoron and simply not true, so this somehow makes the narrative not credible and not worthy of acknowledgment. This is where it becomes imperative to understand the way narrative works. It doesn’t matter if “Clean Coal” is factually untrue. If the group constructing the “Clean Coal” narrative convinces enough people to care about their story, their narrative survives in the cultural space. The opposition must create a counter narrative that convinces more people than “Clean Coal.”
There are a plethora of narratives in the energy space. “Clean Coal” and “Energy Independence” are just two that come to mind. Each of these narratives speak to specific values and ideas that have been appropriated into their respective stories. However, these narratives can change. They change when other groups join the discussion and contribute to the narrative, when the socio-cultural environment shifts, and when the majority demands it.
Intel Futurist Brian David Johnson and Gary Dirks discuss energy narratives and how to begin thinking about the future and the implications of our energy choices.
LightWorks also supports a new Social Sciences Initiative at ASU that seeks to bring together the Humanities and Social Sciences in the Energy System Change. Learn more about this exciting new initiative here.
Written by Sydney Lines, ASU LightWorks
On October 19 Dr. Arun Majumdar presented a lecture titled “A New Industrial Revolution for a Sustainable Energy Future” as part of the Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Distinguished Scholar Lecture series. Many students, staff, professors, and researches in the field gathered to listen to Dr. Majumdar’s lecture. The lecture focused on how the United States’ Industrial Revolution had historically impacted energy technologies and how the theory of transitioning to efficient solutions can be applicable to how we will use and shape our current energy resources. Through his research, Dr. Majumdar has led a phenomenal career in paving a path to the future of sustainable energy technologies.
Photo of Dr. Arun Majumdar speaking at the 2010 South West Energy Innovation Conference. Photo by Tom Story, ASU News.
The Industrial Revolution was a period when improvements in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology sparked an era of social, economic, and cultural growth. The transformation of lifestyle made during the Industrial Revolution is arguably the most important human transition since the domestication of plants and animals. Dr. Majumdar noted the Industrial Revolution in his lecture as being “From horse power to horsepower”. The main mode of transportation in the 1800s was the use of horses and carriage. Due to innovation and support for transportation production, the transition from the horse to the automobile took place between the 1890s to the 1920s. In the span of only 30 years, the use of technology and innovation had influenced a change that has affected the way we see transportation forever. People transitioned to a better solution that provided a more efficient approach to production. Dr. Majumdar asked the audience:
“What are the better, cheaper, faster solutions that we have today?”
Although traditional energy resources like petroleum and coal were important to innovation during the Industrial Revolution, times have changed, and the shift from nonrenewable resources to renewable resources is taking place. Dr. Majumdar explained that the transition from the horse to the vehicle is much like the transition that needs to be made from nonrenewable resources to renewable resources. The energy system that the United States’ has supported for more than 200 years is creating an economic dilemma as well as presenting an even more apparent environmental impact on our earth. The need for better, cheaper, and faster renewable energy options is greater than it has ever been.
Some of the goals that Dr. Majumdar discussed to forecast the future of sustainable energy are achieved through higher efficiency rates. In regards to solar energy, Dr. Majumdar highlighted the Department of Energy’s SunShot Initiative. The SunShot Initiative’s plan is to reduce solar energy to a dollar per watt by 2020, which would ultimately make solar energy a cheaper alternative to traditional gas. Also noted was the Department of Energy’s goal on developing a more efficient and lighter engine for vehicles which consumes less fuel but still can go from 0 to 60mph in under five seconds. Dr. Majumdar explained that the transition to sustainable energy innovation and policy will improve the rate in which we utilize our transportation future.
Research and development for breakthrough clean technologies can enable new learning curves. In short, a learning curve is the rate at which productivity and efficiency affects an economy’s learning process. The learning curve is represented in a graphical representation that breaks down the overall changing rate of learning retention from the average individual. Through the innovation of energy researchers and the funding of projects dedicated to clean energy alternatives, the learning curve of Americans can increase to a broader approval of a sustainable energy future. “It is always hard to predict the future,” said Majumdar. “But the hope is to have multiple options”.
This lecture gives us the opportunity to discuss the pressing issue of transitioning from nonrenewable resources to renewable energy resources. The transition into the New Industrial Revolution will define the ways in which we utilize research and development to work toward benefiting our future economic, social, and cultural growth. Dr. Majumdar closed in saying,
“The capacity for the United States to innovate is absolutely spectacular. What we need is increased funding for sustainable policy and clean energy standards... If we don’t change the direction soon, we will end up where we are inevitably heading!”
Written by Gabrielle Olsen, ASU LightWorks